ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland
(work was performed at Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland)
After an overview of the basics of energy storage in batteries, the most promising electrochemical operando characterization techniques for battery materials and electrodes will be discussed. The methods will include (i) electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (EQCM-D) coupled with simultaneous electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), (ii) differential/online electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS/OEMS), which can detect qualitatively and quantitatively volatile reaction products that are evolved during cycling of an electrochemical cell, and (iii) operando Raman spectroscopy which allows following the intercalation and deintercalation of lithium and other ions into/from battery active materials. Finally, (iv) the potential of X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM), a synchrotron-based surface analytical method allowing mapping of surface composition on single particles in battery electrodes, will be discussed. Even the latter vacuum-based techniques can be applied operando, in cells with solid electrolytes.
Professor Petr Novák, Fellow of the International Society of Electrochemistry, build up the Section “Electrochemical Energy Storage” of the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland. A graduate of the Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, he obtained his PhD in electrochemical engineering in 1984 and his habilitation in 1994. He has been working in the field of electrochemical energy storage (focusing on batteries, mainly lithium-based) since 1983, first at the J. Heyrovský Institute, Prague, later as Alexander von Humboldt-Fellow at the University of Bonn, and since 1991 at the Paul Scherrer Institute. He was awarded the Tajima Prize of the International Society of Electrochemistry, the Technology Award of the Battery Division of The Electrochemical Society, Inc., and the 2020 Yeager Award of the International Battery Association for outstanding contributions to electrochemical energy conversion and storage science over a protracted period. Dr. Novák was appointed as a full (W3) professor at the University of Karlsruhe in 2008 (rejected). Petr Novák was awarded the title of Professor of ETH Zurich in 2009.